Curriculum System of Vocational Education in China ——A case study of the curriculum reform of secondary vocational schools in the new century Dr.Zhao,Wenping zhaowenping84@163.com Key exam subjects: There is a … Accordingly, diversity of textbooks and teaching materials were implemented and phased in (Xu, 2012). In an effort to promote sustainable development, Chinese leaders have sought to improve educational quality and increase access across the country. Cui, Y. The theoretical foundation for the current educational system in China may be traced to the “Decision on the Reform of the Educational Structure”, a decree issued in 1985 by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, which was formalized a year later by the National People’s Congress with the ratification of the “Compulsory Education Law.” In UK, the educational system is more complicated. “China’s School Curriculum Reforms in the 1980s: Achievements and Problems.” Paper presented at the New England Educational Research Organization, Portsmouth, NH, April 1991 (ED333567). The first decade after the foundation of New China in 1949 witnessed the introduction of a national curriculum and teaching materials based on the Soviet model (first wave: 1949–1952; second wave: 1953–1957). Li, J. Beijing: Higher Education Press. China opened some educational services; for instance, pre-school education, higher education, … It was not until the late Qing dynasty (1644-1911) that the civil service examination system was dismantled by Yuan Shikai (1859-1916), and replaced by a more western education system. The reform consists of two waves, with its essence being to overcome examination-orientated school practices so as to build quality-oriented education (Ding, 2010). China’s education system has three main levels, composed of Primary, Secondary, and Post-Secondary. The imperial education and examination system in China is estimated to have been founded as early as the Han dynasty (206 BCE to 220 CE), and is strongly based on meritocratic ideals that persist in Chinese education to this day. Guo, L. (2012). The system includes Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral degrees, as well as non-degree programs, and is also open to foreign students. Firstly, it strengthens the concept of focusing on students’ development. Generally speaking, there are two The issue of the Decision on the Deepening of Educational Reform and the Full Promotion of Quality-Oriented Education in 1999 symbolizes the start of the eighth wave of curriculum reform in China. The educational systems of two big countries in the world, UK and China, are very complicated in some degree. Guan, Q., and Meng, W. (2007). Fifthly, the guidance of the research team has been significantly enhanced. The curriculum is very academic orientated. The new government adopted the education policy that mass education is for the ordinary people, thus popularizing education for the working people. Policies aiming at promoting internationalization of education were introduced in order to encourage studying abroad, international exchanges and cooperation, and mutual recognition of degrees and diplomas. 5,High school education is not mandatory in China.qualified students who enter this level of education will either study in regular high schools for three years or vocational higher schools for two or three years. Marketing is not just mastering the E-commerce marketing, SEO or Social media marketing. Now we will show the Similarities and Differences of Chinese education system with UK AND USA. It may sound incredible, but China’s formal education system—the oldest in the world—was established nearly two millennia ago. In that year, the Ministry of Education (MOE) began to approve the use of multiple texts and resources. After spending nearly a decade working in online marketing for multimillion dollar brands and startups, Eric knows what truly drives conversions, sold-out launches. AEF provides a comprehensive suite of teaching and learning resources across all year levels and subject/learning areas to support this. 3,All students are required to attend three years junior high schools after graduating from primary schools. (2003). Chinese education system is different with Western countries’ system.For example,Private schools in China are few and most are Public Schools. The Four Books r… Higher education in China has played an important role in the economic construction, science … (1991). Email: yzhu@kcx.ecnu.edu.cn, Voir la notice dans le catalogue OpenEdition, Plan du site – Contact – Crédits – Mentions légales – Flux de syndication, Nous adhérons à OpenEdition Journals – Édité avec Lodel – Accès réservé, Vous allez être redirigé vers OpenEdition Search, Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres. State education in China The Chinese educational system is based on an elite selection structure, where the scores of the national university entrance examination decides your fate (at least in the state system). References: 1. In this sense, the changes in student learning were brought about mainly by organized and structured top-down reform (implemented either through examinations or policy shifts). Hanson, E. M. (2003). Topic: Curriculum Development in China Presented By: HINA KAYNAT 2. Meanwhile, it measures students potential to success at a higher level of education. In 2013, the tertiary education system supplied more highly-skilled workers than the economy demanded, resulting in a new-graduate unemployment rate more than three times higher than the national average. China’s education system has three main levels, composed of Primary, Secondary, and Post-Secondary. “The History, Culture and Development of Basic Education System in Shanghai.” Paper presented at Sino-Finnish seminar on education systems, Shanghai, June 2012. http://cice.shnu.edu.cn/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=X9fAdJJUhjQ%3D&tabid=11413&language=zh-CN. In fact, students were not provided much autonomy in their learning (Cheng, 2010). Educational Administration and Organizational Behavior. As a Brand and Marketing manager,Eric has successfully assisted brands and business to expand business online. Secondary school is split into Lower and Upper, called 初中 ( chūzhōng ) and 高中 ( gāozhōng ); these are equivalent to middle school and high school respectively. (In Chinese.). 7It is believed that “anxiety, difficulties, and uncertainty are intrinsic to all successful change” (Hanson, 2003). ), Yunhuo Cui et Yan Zhu, « Curriculum reforms in China: history and the present day », Revue internationale d’éducation de Sèvres [En ligne], Colloque : L’éducation en Asie en 2014 : Quels enjeux mondiaux ?, mis en ligne le 05 juin 2014, consulté le 23 janvier 2021. At first, the purpose of education in the UK, the USA and China is not quite similar with each other. Curriculum reform has played a central role in the educational changes in contemporary China. curriculum evaluating system. These changes usually followed major political and social movements and involved the development and implementation of new curriculum guidelines in the form of teaching syllabi or curriculum standards for all school subjects (Ruan and Jin, 2012). In the UK, the purpose of school is to provide children with literacy and the other basic skills they will need to become active members of society, and also to socialize children. All these were swept aside when the Cultural Revolution broke out in 1966. The rapid social and economic changes in Shanghai urged the central government and Shanghai government to inaugurate a curriculum and textbook reform (Li, 2001). Curriculum studies includes curriculum history. “The Culture of Education Policy Making: Curriculum Reform in Shanghai.” Critical Studies in Education, 53, 2: 153–167. The most notable government policy, the 1986 Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, called for achievement of the ‘two basics’ (liangji): universal enrollment among school-aged children (6-15 years) and full literacy among those under the age of 20. Dr. Zhu has been involved in numerous large-scale mathematics education research projects, including “Integrating New Assessment Strategies in Mathematics”, “Secondary Analysis of the TIMSS Data for Hong Kong”, “Investigation on Senior High School Mathematics Curriculum Standards”, “Identifying Unique and Promising Practices in Math and Science Teacher Education in APEC Economics”, etc. It is instructive to give a brief historical overview of these reforms (Tan, 2012). The Ministry of Education, headquartered in Beijing, is the state department responsible for the education system in China. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Curriculum history is the unfolding development of curriculum studies. In this sense, the changes in student learning were brought about mainly by organized and structured top-down reform (implemented either through examinations or policy shifts). Good resources can only be offered to high-crowd end for education in China. “Decentralization of Educational Management and Curriculum Development: A Case Study of Curriculum Reform in Shanghai and Victorian Schools (1985–1995).” Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Monash University. (2010). 3Yang (1991) classified the curriculum changes of the 1980s into two phases (restoration of the social order vs. structural adaption and reorientation) and pointed out the problems that remained after each phase. distributed leadership and total quality management). The percentage of China’s college-age population in higher education has increased from 1.4% in 1978 to roughly 20% in 2005. Zhong, Q., and Cui, Y. Through the comparison of educational system in UK and China, we can find both of them have advantages and disadvantages. China has the largest education system in the world. ... Curriculum evaluation is a way to assess the quality of a curriculum or an educational ... England teaching quality assurance of new trends. Curriculum development in China 1. He has published numerous books, including “School-based Curriculum Development: Theory into Practice”, “Effective Teaching”, “Classroom Observation”, among others. Schools can now choose their materials from a ministry-approved list. Dr. Zhu’s research interests include international comparison in mathematics education, mathematics problem solving, mathematics evaluation and assessment, and textbooks analysis. China online marketing - Key features of Chinese education … Both types of schools enroll about 50% students. URL : http://journals.openedition.org/ries/3846, Cui Yunhuo is Professor and Director of the Institute of Curriculum and Instruction of East China Normal University, a key research institute of humanities and social sciences of the Ministry of Education. “The History, Culture and Development of Basic Education System in Shanghai.” Paper presented at Sino-Finnish seminar on education systems, Shanghai, June 2012. Xue Han Department of Teacher Education, Michigan State University, United States hanxue@msu.edu This article proposes a conceptual framework to examine the development of the It’s how well you connect with the heart-beating people you’re trying to help and communicate your understanding back to them. The education system in mainland China (excluding Hong Kong and Macau) is administered as follows: At the national level, the This large-scale curriculum change signifies China's complex and multi-dimensional processes and endeavors in empowering its educational system to meet the challenges and opportunities in the era of globalization. Examples [in support of the English Language Education Key Learning Area Curriculum Guide (Primary 1 - Secondary 6) 2017] Primary Level. China has the largest education system in the world. [http://psyedu.org.cn/qguan/个人网页信息/发表论文 B-C/C-2 新 课程.pdf ]. Children are required to attend school for a minimum of nine years – six years of primary and three years of lower secondary education. The new government adopted the education policy that mass education is for the ordinary people, thus popularizing education for the working people. School is mandatory for nine years, six of primary and three of junior secondary, but many students continue on to complete the following three to four years of senior secondary. Firstly, it strengthens the concept of focusing on students’ development. The school system starts as follows: Starting Age: Primary 6-7 years; Secondary 11-12 years; College: 16 years (www.chinatoday.com) To enter school in China… Although, China has a great civilization from ancient times to the present, Chinese education system is not as perfect as we expect .The score of the examination is always the first standard to judge if the students study well. Higher education in China has played an important role in the economic construction, science … General Education in China and Japan -A Comparative Perspective. Primary education (小学; xiǎoxué ) is what we typically call elementary level education. Since 1998, Shanghai has stepped into the second wave, aiming to transform students from passive receivers of knowledge to active learners with an emphasis on ethics, innovation, practical skills, information and technology skills, experiential learning, and the personal development of each student. In particular, the Shanghai Education Commission and its delegation, Shanghai Committee of Curriculum and Textbook Reform, fully controlled the development of curriculum and textbook development for Shanghai schools. Furthermore, in compliance with the Law of Compulsory Education enacted in 1985, Shanghai was among the first cities in China to achieve universal primary and secondary education (Xu, 2012). “Primary School Chinese Language and Literacy Curriculum Reforms in China after 1949” in C. B. Leung and J. Ruan (eds) Perspectives on Teaching and Learning Chinese Literacy in China, vol. Celebrating the 36th Teachers' Day: to develop the intellect and morals, to contribute to poverty alleviation; NPC & CPPCC Annual Sessions 2020 and Education: Building a modern education system accessible to all; China's education system in the fight against COVID-19 Secondly, classroom teaching activities become more varied with improved awareness and teaching capacity. It is instructive to give a brief historical overview of these reforms (Tan, 2012). These changes usually followed major political and social movements and involved the development and implementation of new curriculum guidelines in the form of teaching syllabi or curriculum standards for all school subjects (Ruan and Jin, 2012). The first wave (1988–1998), centering on improving students’ overall quality by integrating societal needs, student development and a school’s disciplinary system, introduced a three-block curriculum: compulsory subjects, elective subjects, and extracurricular subjects. Xu, J. The language of instruction is Mandarin Chinese with the exception of the primary schools that mainly admit ethnic minority students. (2012). China is one of the most progressive countries in terms of economic and business development, with an education system that offers children many opportunities to thrive in the future. (2010). Before the most recent wave, underway since 1999, there had been seven major waves in previous years. Thirdly, students’ academic quality, innovative spirit and practical skills see overall improvement. Essentially, it touches upon the entire education system including educational thought, aim, systems, content and method. County-level governments have primary responsibility of the governing and delivery Secondly, classroom teaching activities become more varied with improved awareness and teaching capacity. “New Curriculum Reform in China and Its Impact on Teachers.” Education Canadian and International Education / Education canadienne et internationale, 41, 2: 87–105. The Ministry of Education, headquartered in Beijing, is the state department responsible for the education system in China. The Chinese school system is often perceived as a breeding ground for highly educated future professionals. – An Analysis of the Basic Education Curriculum Reform Outline (Trial)” in Exploring Education Development, 9: 5–10. A-Level) for students who aim to study abroad after completing high school in China. Another great challenge faced by Shanghai is the large gaps between urban and suburban, native Shanghai and recent migrant students, as well as variances between schools caused by historical traditions and teachers’ professional quality (Xu, 2012). Upon graduation, students will receive a Primary School Certificate of Completion. Other measures have cen… China has a ways to go in reforming its education system, as the government has acknowledged; but it is dedicated to creating a system that works for everyone. While many qualified and experienced teachers choose to move to schools in big cities, those in small towns and rural areas have more difficulties in successfully implementing the new curriculum due to their insufficient ability. And after graduated from university, degree titles, which school provided, is called Bachelor’s Degree, while a secondary degree is called Master’s Degree, and Doctorate Degree. China's expanding international school options Education in Germany; Relocating to the US; Common Core standardised testing in the US Even though every state is in charge of its own education laws and initiatives, the US federal government has made attempts to standardise the curriculum across US schools through the introduction of the Common Core. One typical example involves a website entitled “New Century Curriculum Network” (established by MOE’s Center of Curriculum for Basic Education), which collected related information about nationwide curriculum reform to pool quality human resources for consultation through official channels. • Shanghai seeks end to 'Chinglish‘ • CCTV-5 Sports Channel has banned broadcasters from saying "NBA" during the … BASIC EDUCATION•The government has created a special fund toimprove conditions in Chinas elementary andhigh schools, for new construction, expansionand the re-building of run-down structures.•Per-capita educational expenditure forelementary and high school students hasgrown greatly, teaching and researchequipment, books and documents beingupdated and … In Britain, America and China, schools enrolling all kind of people to equalize educational opportunities. 6,Regular high Schools   Most regular high schools adopt Chinese national curriculum. In their mission to \"modernize China through education\", they certify teachers, standardize textbooks and curriculum, and enforce national education standards. The government has said it is studying what other countries do, but at the end of the day, it will be looking for reforms that will cater to Chinese students specifically. School leaders experience cultural dilemmas with the introduction of new leadership and managerial approaches based on Western culture (e.g. Subject/learning area pages comprise information about curriculum, resources and professional learning. As Feng (2006) remarked, the recent curriculum reform of basic education launched during the period in which China’s economic and political systems were transforming is a significant and profound change. In particular, the restoration phase faced challenges related to an imbalanced curriculum in favor of intellectual elites, the devaluation of elective courses, curriculum segmentations, discouragement of creative arts and recreation, and overburdened teachers and students, whereas the reorientation phase had problems related to lack of financial support, an inflexible curriculum for diverse populations, an abstract and segmented curriculum, exclusion of electives and vocational training, lack of diverse instructional media, and no provision for independent learning. Yang (1991) classified the curriculum changes of the 1980s into two phases (restoration of the social order vs. structural adaption and reorientation) and pointed out the problems that remained after each phase. Outcome-based education has meant different thing to different people in theory and in practise (Hargreaves and Moore, 200o; Harley et … The percentage of China’s college-age population in higher education has increased from 1.4% in 1978 to roughly 20% in 2005. Email: cuiyunhuo@vip.163.com, Zhu Yan, Associate Professor of Department of Curriculum and Instruction of East China Normal University, used to work in Nanyang Technological University and the University of Hong-Kong. These changes usually followed major political and social movements and involved the development and implementation of new curriculum guidelines in the form of teaching syllabi or curriculum standards for all school subjects (Ruan and Jin, 2012). Investigation and Policy Analysis of Professional Development of Primary and Secondary Teachers in China. Children start schools at age six (seven in some areas). Wen, Y. They both have advantages and disadvantages in each phase of education. 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