8. successively increasing or decreasing in predetermined increments the slope of said ramp voltage, respectively, in response to detected predetermined magnitudes obtained by said respectively increasing or decreasing ramp signal. or 2-in. ;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, Owner name: 4. The steeper is the slope of the ramp within the non-linear region the faster is the flux change and consequently the larger is the magnitude of the recorded disturbing "pop" signal. The deep roots of these plants bind the earth together while their foliage and branches protect from the erosion caused by rainfall and winds. a detecting means coupled to detect predetermined magnitudes of an increasing ramp signal in a first succession and to apply responsively respective control signals to said switches to connect is sasid first succession said further resistors respectively to said series input resistor to obtain an incrementally increasing slope of said increasing ramp signal and said detecting means being coupled to detect said predetermined magnitudes of a decreasing ramp signal in a second succession, opposite to said first succession and to apply responsively respective control signals to said switches to disconnect in said second succession said further resistors respectively from said series input resistor to obtain an incrementally decreasing slope of said decreasing ramp signal. ;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006334/0371, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007456/0224, PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362, Generator of drive signals for transistors connected in a half-bridge configuration, Charge balanced ramp with improved signal linearity, Current injected ramp with reduced recovery time background of the invention, Digital ramp generator with output power level controller, Voltage-controlled dual-slope square and triangular waveform generator, Storage device having write signal with multiple-slope data transition, CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR RECOVERY OF DATA CONTAINING IN BINARY DATA SIGNALS, High energy ignition generator, particularly for gas turbine, Oscillator having output frequency linearly related to resistance, High precision triangular waveform generator, Improvements in electrical signal function generators, Compander with control signal logarithmically related to the instantaneous rms value of the input signal, Dynamic noise filter having means for varying cutoff point, Compressors, expanders and noise reduction systems, Companding noise reduction system with simultaneous encode and decode, Rotary head type magnetic video recording and reproducing system, Compander noise reduction method and apparatus, Playback system utilizing variable delay and speed control means for flutter and wowcompensation, Automatic gain control system for optical disk unit, Information recording device for video and sound, Dynamic equalizer circuits having a light dependent cell for producing a relatively constant apparent loudness effect, Signal processing for digital optical disc players, High density information recording and reproducing system, Disc recording/reproducing apparatus having two constant linear velocities with controlled step switching between the two, Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees, Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee, Information on status: patent discontinuation. 2. 2 is an example of a prior art erase or bias voltage envelope characteristic related to the playback characteristic of FIG. 3. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 2 of the cross-referenced application in which each ramp extends linearly from zero to the respective optimum value within a time period T1 or T2 corresponding to time periods T0 to T3 or T4 to T7 of FIG. 4, the present invention is not restricted thereto. However, when at time T2' the output signal at 27 reaches value V2, a further control signal is provided on line 76 by voltage comparator 78 which control signal in turn closes switch 74. 5 shows examples of ramp characteristics provided by the circuit of FIG. While the invention has been shown and described with particular reference to preferred and alternative embodiments thereof, it will be understood that variations and modifications in form and details may be made therein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. slump will work. As verbs the difference between ramp and slope is that ramp is to behave violently; to rage while slope is (label) to … The circuit of claim 3 further comprising a first resistive voltage divider means having one terminal coupled to said output of said first D.C. reference voltage source, having a second, opposite terminal grounded and having an output terminal provided between said first and second terminal, respectively, said output terminal being coupled to said non-inverting input of the integrating means. \(\PageIndex{1}\) What is Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation —light—is a form of energy whose behavior is … Some applications wish to measure the time interval between two events rather than some notion of an absolute time. As an example, in the preferred embodiment the time interval from the beginning of a ramp-up signal at T0 to T3 when a desired optimum voltage level V3 is obtained, is 16 milliseconds, while the time between T0 and T1 corresponding to the duration of section k is 12 milliseconds. As a result, the slope of the linear ramp signal obtained at output 27 increases as shown by increment 1 in FIG. 4. Wheelchair Ramp Specs: Slope and Rise. The technique is called current-mode control because the inductor current is directly controlled, whereas the output voltage is controlled only indirectly by the current loop. 3 is an example of a ramp signal characteristic in accordance with the present invention. mode control methods, and the most popular method is fixed-frequency peak-current-mode control with fixed-slope compensation ramp. To manage these variations in slope angle & berm width, GEOVIA Surpac has the capability to design a pit from the value stored into the D-field of pit design string file. ;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION A DE CORP., CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. The voltage divider 85, 86 has the respective values of its resistors selected such that at output 81 therefrom a predetermined ratio of reference voltage Vref is obtained corresponding to a value greater than that of V1 of FIG. 2, 1982 with this application, now U.S. Pat. The method of claim 14 wherein said step of successively increasing or decreasing the slope of said ramp voltage, respectively, is provided by successively decreasing or increasing said selected integrating time constant, respectively in predetermined increments. Field of the Invention . 3. It will be understood that to activate the respective switches 73, 74, either the voltage levels V1, V2 or the respective times T1', T2' and T5', T6' necessary to obtain these voltage levels may be detected, respectively. 3 has the advantage of providing a linear slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic having a length necessary to eliminate recording of "bumps", and at the same time of obtaining a desired optimum signal level in a predetermined short time. Pyramat near the top of zone 2 in August of 2000. slump. © 2020 Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, Published by Elsevier Korea LLC. 3. Sheet draining is the least preferred grading method because water must travel the furthest distance across the skin. 2, since both occur within the non-linear portion of the magnetic tape characteristic, as described previously with respect to FIG. 3, the switches 73, 74 are controlled to respectively disconnect successively resistors 71, 72 from resistor 23 when respective predetermined voltage levels V2, V1 or points in time T5', T6' are obtained. a detecting means coupled to detect in succession predetermined magnitudes of said ramp signal and to apply respective control signals in response to each said magnitude obtained by said ramp signal to activate said switch means in said succession. The small deviation that is present is likely a consequence of the (small) effect of the ramps on [Cl −] i.) Be aware of the pavement cross slope, wind conditions and other considerations for the route. where: Q = discharge (ft 3 /s) The inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 is connected via series input resistor 23 to the output of switch 7. An example of a video tape recorder utilizing such prior art audio bias recording and erase circuit is type VPR-2, manufactured by Ampex Corporation, assignor of this patent application. FIG. These methods are developed on the assumption that the plane of failure is circular arc, apart from the Culmann method that assumes a plane surface of failure through the toe of the slope. Figure 5. The thusly obtained signal is then attenuated by a potentiometer attenuator connected in the high frequency signal path in each respective channel to obtain respective desired optimum levels and thereafter the resulting attenuated signal is applied to a respective bias or erase current amplifier of that particular channel as it is well known in the art. • Control of inflowing water from hill side slopes is a critical factor in design of such landfills. However, in some applications, for example when recording audio signals in video tape recorders, it is also required to obtain an optimum erase or bias signal level within a relatively short time corresponding to one video field or frame interval, that is, within 30 milliseconds or less to facilitate editing. For example, to obtain an incrementally increasing or decreasing ramp signal by the circuit of the present invention it is not necessary for the voltage source 10 to be adjustable. The latter effects a decreased input resistance value of integrator 40 and thereby it shortens the time constant RC thereof, as it is well known. If in some applications it is desired to provide different ramp-up and ramp-down periods such as T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 shown in FIG. Dual-Slope Converter. In this latter case the output signal obtained at output 27 of integrator 40 may be adjusted to a desired level prior to being applied to chopper 28 shown in FIG. Thirty healthy male workers performed 14 tasks consist of moving a cart up and down on the ramp of 0°, 10°, 15°, and 20° degrees with pushing and pulling methods. Specifically, section k has the most gentle slope, as it may be necessary to eliminate recording of the above-described "bumps". Consequently, following each edit, an audible "pop" remains on the tape. PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362. 5. As it is known, the longer the duration of the ramp signal within that non-linear region the larger will be the wavelength of the "bumps" and if a sufficiently long wavelength could be provided it may fall below the audible bandwidth or below the operating range of an associated playback amplifier. The respective outputs of voltage comparators 77, 78 are connected via lines 75, 76 each to a control input of a respective switch 73, 74 as described previously. To maintain the design speed, highway and ramp curves are usually superelevated to overcome part of the centrifugal force that acts on a vehicle. Other Ramps Maximum Slope = 1:8 slope = 1.5:12 slope = 12.5% slope = 7.13° slope Typically in sketches and plans like the drawing we show above where common ramp slopes are in the orange area, ramp slopes range between 0° and 18° with a preferred slope of about 7° or 1.5:12 or by the 2018 IRC Ramp Code, a more-gentle slope of about 5° or 1:12. 4 as follows. The latter linear portions are respectively shown in FIG. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST (SEE DOCUMENT FOR DETAILS). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The "ramp-up" and "ramp-down" periods T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 provided by that integrator 40 are equal when the respective values R1 and R2 of resistors 15, 16 are selected equal as it is the case in the preferred embodiment of FIG. 4 is utilized, it is possible to change the reference voltage Vref while the duration of the entire ramp signal T0 to T3 or T4 to T7 remains the same. The shear force also increased when the slope of the ramp was increased only in pulling (p < 0.01). For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. Joint angles from a 3D motion capture system combined with subject height, body weight, and hand forces were used to calculate the spinal load by the 3DSSPP program. The circuit of a preferred embodiment of the invention will be described now with reference to FIG. 24. Owner name: BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. How Does it Work Cont. The circuit of claim 10 wherein said first means comprises a resistive voltage divider means having one terminal coupled to said output of said adjustable D.C. reference voltage source, having a second, opposite terminal grounded and having a third terminal provided between said first and second terminal, respectively, corresponding to said output of said first means and wherein a resistance value between said first and third terminal and between said second and third terminal of said resistive voltage divider means is selected equal to obtain a time interval necessary for ramping-up equal to that which is necessary for ramping-down said ramp signal with respect to said maximum value. As noted previously, in the preferred embodiment the latter values are selected R1=R2. 13. Its bias and erase signal generator circuit is described in VPR-2 Video Production Recorder, Catalog No. 1 are recorded on the tape which, when played back, cause audible "pops" disturbing to the ear. The results demonstrated significant differences when moving a cart by push and pull methods on a 0° slope (p < 0.001). The incrementally sloping ramp characteristic of FIG. Learn about our high-quality motorcycle ramps and other motorcycle products, from how to properly tie down a motorcycle, to understanding the differences between each type of ramp so you can make an educated purchase, the … The thusly obtained increasing ramp signal is represented in FIG. At high slopes, pulling generated more compression and shear forces than that of pushing (p < 0.01). Briefly, that prior art circuit (not shown) has an integrating operational amplifier for providing a desired linearly ramped output voltage in response to an input voltage step. 1. 4 is changed in predetermined linear increments. The time constant RC of the integrator 40 is dependent on the respective values R' of resistor 23 and C of capacitor 26 as well known, as well as on the ratio of the resistance values R1, R2 of the voltage divider 15, 16. Imitate natureThe native vegetation usually found at the shoreline strengthens its structural integrity and prevents the land from breaking apart. Switch 7 responsively connects the inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 via input resistor 23 to voltage Vref or ground, respectively. A method of providing a ramp signal, comprising the steps of: providing a first D.C. reference voltage; providing a predetermined ratio of said first D.C. reference voltage; providing an increasing or decreasing integrated D.C. ramp voltage respectively, in response to a D.C. input step signal having a selected integrating time constant corresponding to a selected slope of said ramp voltage; limiting said D.C. ramp voltage to a maximum value determined by said first D.C. reference voltage; detecting in succession predetermined magnitudes obtained by said increasing or decreasing D.C. ramp voltage; and. The slope-area method consists of using the slope of the water surface in a uniform reach of channel and the average cross-sectional area of that reach to give a rate of discharge. It is a further particular advantage of the preferred embodiment of FIG. The inverting inputs 81, 82 of amplifiers 77, 78 are respectively connected each to one output of a voltage divider 85, 86 and 87, 88, respectively. Alternatively, a microprocessor-controlled detection system may be provided to control the respective switches 73, 74. The dual-slope integration type of A/D conversion is a very popular method for digital voltmeter applications. Alternatively, instead of detecting the respective voltage levels such as V1, V2, etc., of the ramp signal provided by the integrator 40 utilizing voltage detectors, it may be possible to detect corresponding points in time T'1, T'2, T'5, T'6, etc. When comparing the characteristics of FIGS. The circuit of claim 4 wherein respective resistance values between said first and said output terminal and between said second and said output terminal of said resistive voltage divider means are selected equal to obtain a time interval necessary for ramping-up equal to that which is necessary for ramping-down said ramp signal. In the dual-slope converter, an integrator circuit is driven positive and negative in alternating cycles to ramp down and then up, rather than being reset to 0 volts at the end of every cycle. The voltage Vref on line 11 is applied to Vcc source voltage input of amplifier 40 which voltage sets the limit for a maximum output signal value on line 27 from amplifier 40. The counter then would count-up to a predetermined count corresponding to time T'1, and then to T'2, etc. 3, the ramp-up signal portion of the characteristic is formed of linear sections or increments k, l and m, each having a different slope with respect to the horizontal axis. • Waste is placed along the sides of existing hill slope. If the ramp width is added, the overall slope, as dictated by inter-ramp constraints is: (2) The overall slope was determined to be sufficiently stable at 44°. The steep slope in zone 1 necessitated safety ropes. That is, any error introduced by a component value during the integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the de-integrate phase. q Zone one – cellular confinement methods (Table 1, p. 5), with a control section adjacent to the test sections. 1. The dual-slope A/D conversion method is very popular in applications that do not require high-speed operation. To illustrate the above-described disadvantages of the prior art circuits, FIG. 14. FIG. To facilitate comparison between the present and the cross-referenced patent application, corresponding circuit elements of both applications are designated by like reference numerals. On the other hand the remaining sections l and m of the characteristic of FIG. When compared to other types of ADC techniques, the dual-slope method is slow but is quite adequate for a digital voltmeter used for laboratory measurements. The circuit of any of claims 1 to 8 wherein said source for providing said D.C. reference voltage is an adjustable voltage source. Various materials are used depending on the desired or necessary characteristics of your site. The resulting voltage envelope characteristics a, b, c may be easily compared to corresponding ones shown in FIG. That is, any error introduced by a component value during the integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the de-integrate phase. To best preserve the shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1. A circuit for generating an adjustable ramp signal, comprising; an adjustable D.C. reference voltage source having an output coupled to provide a desired adjustable D.C. reference voltage value; a first resistive voltage divider means having a first terminal coupled to said output of said adjustable D.C. reference voltage source having a second, opposite terminal grounded, and having a third, output terminal provided between said first and second terminal, respectively; an integrating means having an inverting input coupled to receive a postive or negative D.C. input step voltage for responsibly coupling said inverting input to said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage or ground, respectively, having a non-inverting input coupled to said output terminal of said voltage divider means for receiving a predetermined ratio of said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage value and having an output coupled to provide said ramp signal in response to said D.C. input step voltage; said integrating means having a series input resistor coupled between an input terminal for receiving said input step voltage and said inverting input and a feedback capacitor coupled between said output and said inverting input of said integrating means and having a predetermined number of further input resistors and switch means respectively, each further input resistor being coupled in parallel to said series input resistor via one said switch means; and saod corciot further comprising: a predetermined number of voltage comparators coupled to detect in succession predetermined magnitudes of said ramp signal and voltage divider means, each voltage comparator having a first non-inverting input coupled to said output of said integrating means and a second inverting input coupled to an output of said voltage divider means, respectively, each said voltage divider means having a first terminal coupled to an output of said adjustable D.C. reference source and having a second, opposite terminal grounded, and wherein an output of each said voltage comparator is coupled to a control input of one said switch means. 1 shows an example of a playback voltage characteristic Vp corresponding to flux remaining on tape after an erase signal has been applied thereto by a prior art audio recording circuit utilized in a video tape recorder. Elevated launches can be used to bypass environmentally sensitive areas or areas of unstable Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide a circuit and method of generating a ramp signal which has a sufficient duration or length within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristics while an optimum signal value is obtained by that ramp signal within a predetermined short time. Alternatively, the slope of ramp 22 may be determined empirically by determining the time t ref for the ramp to proceed from 0 to V ref, since V ref is known. 4 in accordance with the present invention and which portion is not described or shown in the cross-referenced patent application will be described below. Controlled Adjustable Ramp Signal Generator and Method" by John S. Fawkes, et al., and commonly assigned to the assignee of this application. 2 or decreases to zero therefrom, respectively. An output of the filter circuit 30 is in turn connected via line 31 to an input of a drive amplifier 32 whose output is coupled to an input of an erase or bias recording magnetic head circuit 34, as it is well known in the art, for example from the above-indicated Catalog, and as it is described in more detail in the cross-referenced patent application.

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